Author Archives: ACR 2014

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3850 switch – IOS XE upgrade Detailed

By default, the switches are shipped in Install mode.

Bundle mode: Bundle mode is where we boot the switch/stack using the .bin file. This is the traditional method of booting the switch where the switch extracts the .bin file to the RAM of the switch and run from there.

Install Mode: Install mode is where we pre-extract the .bin file in the flash and boot the witch/stack using the packages.conf file created during the extraction.

Note:
Install mode is the recommended mode of running the switch. Not all features may be available in this Bundle mode

Upgrading a stand-alone switch:
For example: boot flash:cat3k_caa-universalk9.SSA.03.08.83.EMD.150-8.83.EMD.bin

Hence, the boot variable should not be pointing to the .bin file. If so, the switch will boot in Bundle mode. The boot variable should be pointing to the “packages.conf” file in order for the switch to boot in Install mode.

Before doing the upgrade, we need to check the mode in which the switch is currently booted in.
show version | begin Switch Port

Switch Ports Model SW Version SW Image Mode
—— —– —– ———- ———- —-
* 1 32 WS-C3850-24T 03.03.01SE cat3k_caa-universalk9 INSTALL •ß Install mode

https://community.cisco.com/t5/networking-documents/3850-switch-ios-xe-upgrade-detailed-standalone/ta-p/3138609
https://content.cisco.com/chapter.sjs?uri=/searchable/chapter/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/Denali_16-1/ConfigExamples_Technotes/Config_Examples/Misc/qos/m_install_vs_bundle.html.xml

Cisco 3850 covert from bundle to install mode:
Current mode: BUNDLE MODE

1. dir flash: – Current running IOS version should be visible.
2. Expand the file to the flash file system.
#software expand running to flash:
it take running .bin file and expand the content to the flash file system so we
can then convert from bundle to install mode.

3. Verify once expanded, All pkg file should be expanded including the very important packages.conf file.
#dir flash:

4. Change the boot variable to point to the packages.conf file.
#boot system switch all flash:packages.conf
This will cover single to multiple switches in a stack.

5. Verify the boot
#show boot
verify the boot variable and build

6. wr mem
7. reload
8. show version | begin Switch Port
9. clean the bin file
#software clean
#wr mem

Replace a Failed Cisco 3850 Switch in a Stack
I.
1. Connect to the new switch
2. Verify the license level and IOS version.
a. In order to avoid the license mismatch.
#license right-to-use activate ipbase all acceptEULA
3. Restart

II.
On your stack, you need to make sure the new switch come up with the same software version.
Master(global)# software auto-upgrade auto
So when we connect the new switch it will auto upgrade the same version as
the stack.

III.
Connect the stacking cable and the power of the new switch.

Cisco Catalyst 3850 IOS Upgrade on All Stack Members – Version Mismatch

1. Connect the switches to the stack
2. Verify the license level
3. On master
#request platform software package install auto-upgrade
Auto upgrade has been initiated for the following incompatible switch
4. Reload the new member

Cisco 3850 IOS switch stack 3.x.x to 16.x.x upgrade install mode
1. We need to make sure the we do have space available on the flash:
#software clean
2. Copy the bin file active switch flash
3. Once the file is copied over we are going to regenerate rsa cryto key use for SSH and the 16.x.x release notes if your upgrading from 3.x.x to 16.x.x to generate a new crypto key.
#crypto key generate key 1024
4. Begin the software upgrade
#software install file flash:filename switch verbose new force

New – we need to create a new packages.conf to be used by the boot up process.
force – this will force actual process, 1 major code to another.. otherwise package compatibility will fail.

Troubleshooting:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst3750/software/troubleshooting/switch_stacks.html
https://community.cisco.com/t5/switching/new-3850-stack-upgrade-problem-3-x-gt-16-x/td-p/3208779
https://community.cisco.com/t5/networking-documents/using-the-auto-upgrade-feature-on-the-cisco-catalyst-3850/ta-p/3140319

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Easy VPN (EZVPN) with Dynamic Virtual Tunnel Interface (DVTI)

R14 –CLOUD– R15

R14#sh ip int brief | ex ass
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 1.1.1.10 YES manual up up
FastEthernet0/1 172.16.32.1 YES manual up up
Virtual-Access2 172.16.0.4 YES TFTP up up
Virtual-Template11 172.16.0.4 YES TFTP down down
Loopback0 172.16.0.4 YES manual up up

========= CONFIGURATION

R14#sh run
Building configuration…

Current configuration : 2505 bytes
!
version 12.4
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
hostname R14
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
!
aaa new-model
!
!
aaa authentication login AUTHEN local
aaa authorization network AUTHOR local
!
!
aaa session-id common
memory-size iomem 5
no ip icmp rate-limit unreachable
ip cef
ip tcp synwait-time 5
!
!
!
!
no ip domain lookup
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
!
!
!
!
username site secret 5 $1$fsT/$wFlStpOW8qr1EKH2v3q9j/
!
!
!
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr aes 256
authentication pre-share
group 2
crypto isakmp keepalive 10 3
crypto isakmp xauth timeout 5

!
crypto isakmp client configuration group EZVPN_GROUP
key cisco
dns 172.16.32.40
domain LABMINUTES.COM
acl EZVPN_ST_ACL
save-password
pfs
crypto isakmp profile EZVPN_ISAKMP_PROFILE
self-identity address
match identity group EZVPN_GROUP
client authentication list AUTHEN
isakmp authorization list AUTHOR
client configuration address respond
keepalive 10 retry 3
virtual-template 11
!
!
crypto ipsec transform-set ESP_AES256_SHA esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
crypto ipsec df-bit clear
!
crypto ipsec profile EZVPN_IPSEC_PROFILE
set security-association lifetime kilobytes 1024000
set security-association lifetime seconds 28800
set transform-set ESP_AES256_SHA
set pfs group2
set isakmp-profile EZVPN_ISAKMP_PROFILE
!
!
!
!
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 172.16.0.4 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 1.1.1.10 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
ip address 172.16.32.1 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Virtual-Template10
no ip address
!
interface Virtual-Template11 type tunnel
ip unnumbered Loopback0
tunnel mode ipsec ipv4
tunnel protection ipsec profile EZVPN_IPSEC_PROFILE
!
ip route 2.2.2.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.1.1
!
!
no ip http server
no ip http secure-server
!
ip access-list extended EZVPN_ST_ACL
permit ip 172.16.32.0 0.0.0.255 any
!
no cdp log mismatch duplex
!
!
!
!
!
control-plane
!
!
!
line con 0
exec-timeout 0 0
privilege level 15
logging synchronous
line aux 0
exec-timeout 0 0
privilege level 15
logging synchronous
line vty 0 4
!
!
end

========= ROUTE

R14#sh ip route
Gateway of last resort is not set
1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 1.1.1.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
2.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
S 2.2.2.0 [1/0] via 1.1.1.1
[1/0] via 0.0.0.0, Virtual-Access2
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
S 172.16.128.0/24 [1/0] via 0.0.0.0, Virtual-Access2
C 172.16.32.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1
C 172.16.0.4/32 is directly connected, Loopback0

Note: routes automatically installed to each router pointing to the virtual access interface that was dynamically created.

===================================================
R15#sh ip int brief | ex ass
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 172.16.128.1 YES manual up up
FastEthernet0/1 2.2.2.10 YES manual up up
Virtual-Access2 2.2.2.10 YES TFTP up up
Virtual-Template10 172.16.0.2 YES TFTP down down
Loopback0 172.16.0.2 YES manual up up

R15#sh run
Building configuration…

Current configuration : 1981 bytes
!
version 12.4
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
hostname R15
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
!
no aaa new-model
memory-size iomem 5
no ip icmp rate-limit unreachable
ip cef
ip tcp synwait-time 5
!
!
!
!
no ip domain lookup
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr aes 256
authentication pre-share
group 2
crypto isakmp keepalive 10 3
crypto isakmp xauth timeout 5

!
!
!
!
!
crypto ipsec client ezvpn EZVPN
connect auto
group EZVPN_GROUP key cisco
mode network-extension
peer 1.1.1.10 default
idletime 3600
virtual-interface 10
username site password cisco
xauth userid mode local
!
!
!
!
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 172.16.0.2 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 172.16.128.1 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
crypto ipsec client ezvpn EZVPN inside
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
ip address 2.2.2.10 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
crypto ipsec client ezvpn EZVPN
crypto ipsec client ezvpn EZVPN inside
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Virtual-Template10 type tunnel
ip unnumbered Loopback0
tunnel mode ipsec ipv4
!
ip route 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 2.2.2.1
!
!
no ip http server
no ip http secure-server
ip dns view
domain name-server 172.16.32.40
ip dns view-list ezvpn-internal-viewlist
view 10
restrict name-group 1
view 20
ip dns name-list 1 permit P^B
ip dns server view-group ezvpn-internal-viewlist
!
no cdp log mismatch duplex
!
!
!
!
!
control-plane
!
!
!
line con 0
exec-timeout 0 0
privilege level 15
logging synchronous
line aux 0
exec-timeout 0 0
privilege level 15
logging synchronous
line vty 0 4
login
!
!
end

Gateway of last resort is not set

1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
S 1.1.1.0 [1/0] via 2.2.2.1
2.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 2.2.2.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.128.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
S 172.16.32.0/24 [1/0] via 0.0.0.0, Virtual-Access2
C 172.16.0.2/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
R15#

======================== TEST PING (LAN TO LAN)
R14#ping 172.16.128.1 source 172.16.32.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.128.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 172.16.32.1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/44/56 ms

R15#ping 172.16.32.1 source 172.16.128.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.32.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 172.16.128.1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 36/79/188 ms
R15#

EZ VPN

Configuring EasyVPN Between Cisco Routers

Site2Site IPSec VPN Tunnel with Cisco EasyVPN

Configuring EZVPN

Server (7 Steps)
1. AAA –
2. Pool for the client –
3. Phase 1 – ISAKMP –
4. Phase 2 – IPsec transformset –
5. Crypto Dynamic map – For client that will be learn dnamically.. Transform set will be dynamically downloaded to the client.
6. Crypto Dynamic map
7. Apply to the interface

Client
1. Group name
2. Key
– Wil be use to talk to the server.

http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=421514&seqNum=3

The Cisco Easy VPN feature, also known as EzVPN, eases IPSec configuration by allowing an almost no-touch configuration of the IPSec client.

EzVPN uses the Unity client protocol, which allows most IPSec VPN parameters to be defined at an IPSec gateway, which is also the EzVPN server. When an EzVPN client initiates an IPSec tunnel connection, the EzVPN server pushes the IPSec policies and other attributes required to form the IPSec tunnel to the EzVPN client and creates the corresponding IPSec tunnel connection. The tunnel on the EzVPN client can be initiated automatically or manually, or it could be traffic triggered, depending on the configuration or type of EzVPN client used. Minimal configuration is required at the EzVPN client. EzVPN provides the following general functions in order to simplify the configuration process:

Negotiating tunnel parameters— This is done with encryption algorithms, SA lifetimes, and so on.
User authentication— This entails validating user credentials by way of XAUTH.
Automatic configuration— Performed by pushing attributes such as IP address, DNS, WINs, and so on, using MODECFG.
The term EzVPN client is used for both Cisco Unity VPN clients, called EzVPN software clients, and the Unity client protocol running on smaller Cisco routers like the 800, 1700, and 2600 series, commonly referred to as EzVPN hardware clients.

Configuration:

aaa new-model
aaa authorization network AUTH local
!
ip local pool ezp 20.20.20.1 20.20.20.20
!
crypto isakmp client configuration group ezc
key cciesec
pool ezp
!
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr 3des
authentication pre-share
hash sha
group 2
!
crypto ipsec transform-set t-set esp-3des esp-md5-hmac
!
crypto dynamic-map dmap 10
set transform-set t-set
reverse-route
!
crypto map cmap isakmp authorization list AUTH
crypto map cmap client configuration address respond
crypto map cmap 10 ipsec-isakmp dynamic dmap
!
int f0/0
crypto map cmap

! CLIENT
crypto ipsec client ezvpn ez
group ezc key cciesec
peer 123.0.0.1
connect auto
mode client
int loop 0
crypto ipsec client ezvpn ez inside

int g1/0
crypto ipsec client ezvpn ez outside

NAT Basics

static nat
ip nat inside source static 10.0.0.2 112.1.1.5

R4#sh ip nat translations
Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
— 112.1.1.5 10.0.0.2 — —

R4#sh ip nat translations
Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
icmp 112.1.1.5:5 10.0.0.2:5 112.1.1.2:5 112.1.1.2:5
icmp 112.1.1.5:6 10.0.0.2:6 112.1.1.2:6 112.1.1.2:6
icmp 112.1.1.5:7 10.0.0.2:7 112.1.1.2:7 112.1.1.2:7

Dynamic nat
access-list 10 permit any
ip nat inside source list 10 interface g2/0 overload

R4#sh ip nat translations
Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
icmp 112.1.1.1:8 10.0.0.2:8 112.1.1.2:8 112.1.1.2:8
icmp 112.1.1.1:9 172.1.1.1:9 112.1.1.2:9 112.1.1.2:9
icmp 112.1.1.1:10 172.1.1.1:10 112.1.1.2:10 112.1.1.2:10

https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/thread/41202

Dynamic VTI IPSEC

Dynamic VTI IPSEC

IPSec virtual tunnel interfaces (VTI) provide a routable interface type for terminating IPSec tunnels an
easy way to define protection between sites to form an overlay network. IPSec virtual tunnel interfacees
simplify configuration of IPSec for protection of remote links, supports multicast, and simplifies
network management and load balancing.

Information About IPSec Virtual Tunnel Interfaces:
The IPSec virtual tunnel interface greatly simplifies the configuration process when you need to provide
protection for remote access and provides an simpler alternative to using GRE or L2TP tunnels for
encapsulation and crypto maps with IPSec. A major benefit associated with IPSec virtual tunnel
interfaces is the reduction in overhead because the configuration does not require a static mapping of
IPSec sessions to a physical interface: The IPSec VTI allows for the flexibility of sending and receiving
both IP unicast and multicast encrypted traffic on any physical interface, such as in the case of multiple
paths (multicast routing).

Routing with IPSec Virtual Tunnel Interfaces:
You can enable routing protocols on the tunnel interface so that routing information can be propagated
over the virtual tunnel. The router can establish neighbor relationships over the virtual tunnel interface.
Multicast packets can be encrypted, and interoperability with standard-based IPSec installations is
possible through the use of IP ANY ANY proxy. The static IPSec interface, will negotiate and accept
permit IP ANY ANY proxies.
– Cisco Docs

Verification Commands:
show interface tunnel 0
Tunnel protocol/transport IPSEC/IP
show crypto session
show crypto isakmp policy
show crypto isakmp profile
show crypto engine connection active
show run | s crypto
show ip route

IP Addressing / Block:
192.168.0.0/32 – lo
10.0.123.1 – Tunnel Interface
123.0.0.0/24 – WAN

—–R1
int g1/0
ip add 123.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
desc Hub
no shut
int loop 0
ip add 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.255
no shut
—–R2
int g1/0
ip add 123.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
desc spoke1-R2
no shut
int loop 0
ip add 192.168.0.2 255.255.255.255
no shut
—–R3
int g1/0
ip add 123.0.0.3 255.255.255.0
desc spoke2-R3
no shut
int loop 0
ip add 192.168.0.3 255.255.255.255
no shut

IPSEC and VTI Configuration:
============= R2
crypto isakmp policy 10
encryption aes 256
hash sha
authentication pre-share
group 14
lifetime 3600

crypto isakmp key cisco address 123.0.0.1
crypto isakmp key cisco address 123.0.0.3

crypto ipsec transform-set TS esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode tunnel

crypto ipsec profile IPSEC
set transform-set TS

interface Tunnel0
ip address 10.0.123.2 255.255.255.0
ip mtu 1400
tunnel source GigabitEthernet1/0
tunnel mode ipsec ipv4
tunnel destination 123.0.0.1
tunnel protection ipsec profile IPSEC

router eigrp 1

============== R1
crypto isakmp policy 10
encryption aes 256
hash sha
authentication pre-share
group 14
lifetime 3600

! Difference on HUB is we are not seperating the crypto key for each spoke rather we put it in a single keyring for neighbors.
crypto keyring KEYRING
re-shared-key address 123.0.0.2 key cisco

! BUild a ISAKMP Profile and link it to the keyring
crypto isakmp profile ISAKMP
keyring KEYRING
match identity address 123.0.0.2
virtual-template 1

crypto ipsec transform-set TS esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode tunnel

crypto ipsec profile IPSEC
set transform-set TS

! Create another loopback for virtual template.
int loop 1
ip address 10.0.123.1 255.255.255.0 (same network with spoke tunnel int)

! ANother thing is we are not creating a tunnel interface but we create virtual template with type tunnel

int virtual-template 1 type tunnel
ip unnumbered loopback 1
tunnel mode ipsec ipv4
tunnel protection ipsec profile IPSEC
no ip split-horizon eigrp 1
no ip next-hop-self eigrp 1

Juniper CLI Basics

Start the CLI
% cli <- Equivalent to enable command of cisco devices.

Go to configuration mode
> configure

Set a new root password
# set system root-authentication plain-text-password
Note: Juniper always require local root authentication.

Save the new configuration
# commit

Exit to operational mode
# exit configuration-mode

Reload
> request system reboot

IOS vs Junos CLI modes
IOS has three main CLI mode
1. User
2. Exec mode
3. Configuration mode and its hierarchy (sub-config, interface, etc)

Junos has unix shell and two main CLI modes.
1. Operation mode
2. Configuration mode

Junos Shell
When logging into junos as root, you are placed in the unix shell.
– Denoted as user@host%
– ping cd ping trace netstat

Junos CLI operational mode
Used to monitor and troubleshoot device operation
– Denoted as user@host> (Equivalent to ISO user and execmode)

Common Operational Mode Command
– Show, clear, ping, traceroute (Read only commands)

Note: Amnesiac means no configuration.
login: root
password: defined pass
Core is unix shell

Junos CLI Configuration mode
Used to make changes to device configuration
– Denoted as user@host# (Equivalent in global config mode in IOS)

Contain hierarchy of all configuration
– System, Interface, protocols, etc.

Parser
[edit] – global config
[edit system]
[edit interface]

Common Configuration command
– show, edit, up, top, set, delete, copy, rename, commit, rollback

IOS Startup vs running config
IOS has 2 configration:
1. Start-up config – Backup of configuration in NVRAM
2. Running config – Active configuration in RAM

Junos Active vs Candidate configration
– Junos config structure is similar to IOS XR

Note: there is buildin error checks.

1. Commit database for rollback
2. You can use tab and space

Help System
> help apropos route
# help tip cli
# help reference ospf area
# help topic interfaces family